FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions
“Tmin” is an acronym commonly used to denote the “Minimum Temperature”. In hydraulic or water treatment contexts, “Minimum Treated Water Temperature (Tmin)” refers to the minimum temperature at which a device or system can operate effectively.
This temperature is the lower limit below which the device or system might not function properly or efficiently. For example, if the water is too cold, it could reduce the efficiency of a water treatment system or even cause the pipes to freeze in some cases.
Like Tmax, Tmin is an important parameter to consider in the design, installation, and maintenance of hydraulic and water treatment systems.
The “Max Treated Water Temperature (Tmax)” indicates the maximum temperature that the water can reach during the treatment process in a device or a system. In other words, it’s the maximum temperature at which the water can be effectively and safely treated by the system or device without risking damage or a reduction in its efficiency.
This parameter is particularly important in many applications, such as water heating systems, water treatment systems, and refrigeration equipment. It must be carefully considered during the design and installation of these systems, as exceeding the Tmax can lead to operational issues and potential damage to the equipment.
“Umax” is an acronym that could refer to various measurements, depending on the context. However, in the context of a specific technical specification related to a hydraulic or water treatment system, it’s likely that “Umax” refers to “Maximum Humidity”.
Maximum humidity indicates the highest level of relative humidity that a device or system can tolerate for proper and safe operation. This parameter is important to avoid condensation or related problems that could damage the equipment or reduce its efficiency.
Relative humidity is measured in percentage (%), indicating the amount of moisture present in the air compared to the maximum amount that the air could hold at the same temperature.
The double quotation mark (“) is commonly used as a symbol to indicate inches. For example, 12” signifies twelve inches. This is a standard convention in many parts of the world, including the United States and the United Kingdom, where the imperial system of measurement is commonly used.
However, it is important to note that the use of standardized symbols can help to avoid confusion or misunderstandings. For example, in an international or scientific context, it might be preferable to use the abbreviation “in” for inches to avoid confusion with the quotation mark symbol, which can also be used to indicate seconds in angle or time measurements.
In general, the key is to be clear and consistent in the use of symbols and abbreviations, and to ensure that the meaning is understood by the audience to which the information is being conveyed.
In the hydraulic or fluid dynamics context, “Pn” is often used to denote “Nominal Pressure”. This is a reference value established by standards or technical specifications indicating the maximum continuous operating pressure at a certain temperature for which a component or system is designed.
For instance, in the case of pipes, valves, fittings, and other hydraulic components, the nominal pressure may be used to classify the component’s resistance to pressure. The value of Pn can help ensure that all components of a system are adequately sized to handle the anticipated pressures during operation.
It’s important to note that nominal pressure is a design value and should not be confused with the actual operating pressure, which may be lower depending on specific operating conditions. Also, the Pn value can vary depending on the temperature, as the strength of materials can change at different temperatures.
The term “Empty Weight” refers to the weight of an object when it is empty, i.e., when it does not contain any load or content. This term is commonly used in various fields such as mechanical engineering, transportation industry, and materials engineering.
For instance, in the context of vehicles, the empty weight refers to the weight of the vehicle without passengers or cargo, but with all necessary operating fluids, such as engine oil, coolant, and fuel.
In your case, since we are talking about a hydraulic system, the “Empty Weight” might refer to the weight of the unit or system when it doesn’t contain fluid.
The symbol “Q” is not typically used to represent the empty weight. It might be a mistake or a specific habit of the company or industry. Usually, weight is represented with the letter “P” or “W” (from Weight). However, without further details or context, it’s hard to provide a more specific or detailed explanation.
The energy consumption per m³ treated at 30°fH indicates how much energy is needed to treat one cubic meter of water with a hardness of 30 French degrees (°fH).
In the French system, water hardness is measured in French degrees (°fH), where 1 °fH equates to 10 milligrams of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) per liter of water. So, a hardness of 30 °fH means there are 300 milligrams of CaCO3 per liter of water.
The energy consumption per m³ treated at this hardness can vary depending on the type of water treatment being used, the specifications of the system, and other factors. It could be expressed in different units of energy, such as joules (J), kilowatt-hours (kWh), or others, depending on the unit system being used.
This value can be useful for understanding how costly it is from an energy standpoint to treat water of a certain hardness, and it can help make informed choices about system sizing, choice of water treatment method, and other operational decisions.
The “degree of electrical protection” is often indicated by the IP code, which stands for “Ingress Protection” or “International Protection”. This code is an international standard used to classify the level of protection provided by a casing of an electrical device against the intrusion of solid or liquid bodies.
The IP code is followed by two digits. The first digit indicates the level of protection against the intrusion of solid bodies (such as dust or sand) and access to hazardous parts with fingers or tools. It ranges from 0 (no protection) to 6 (total protection).
The second digit indicates the level of protection against water intrusion. It ranges from 0 (no protection) to 8 (protection against continuous immersion in water).
“IP44” means that the device offers a protection level 4 against the intrusion of solid bodies, which protects from particles larger than 1 mm in diameter, and a protection level 4 against water intrusion, which protects against water splashes from all directions.
The “nominal height of the hydraulic unit (A)” usually refers to the physical height of the hydraulic unit that has been designed or named. It is an important parameter in the design and installation of hydraulic systems as it can affect the positioning and installation of the unit, as well as the system’s ability to handle fluid pressure and flow.
The nominal height can be specified in a variety of units of measurement, such as meters (m), centimeters (cm), feet (ft), inches (in), etc., depending on the measurement system used.
However, without further details or context, it is difficult to provide a more specific or detailed explanation of what this term means in your particular case. It could be helpful to have more information about the type of hydraulic unit you are talking about and how this nominal height is used.
The “pressure drop” (∆P) is a fundamental concept in fluid engineering and related sciences. It represents the decrease in fluid pressure (gas or liquid) that occurs as it travels through a duct or device.
This decrease in pressure is due to factors such as friction between the fluid and the walls of the duct, the resistance offered by curves, constrictions or expansions in the flow path, or additional resistances like valves or pumps.
The pressure drop is usually measured in units of pressure. The unit of measurement used can vary depending on the unit system in use. In the International System of Units (SI), the pressure drop is often expressed in pascals (Pa), while in other systems it may be expressed in bars, atmospheres, or other pressure units.
In your example, ∆P represents the pressure drop. The amount of pressure drop in a system can significantly influence its operation, and is therefore an important parameter to consider in the design and operation of fluid systems.
The pressure drop can be expressed in various units depending on the context and conventions used. In many cases, the pressure drop is expressed in terms of pressure, so it could be measured in pressure units like bars or pascals (Pa).
However, the pressure drop can also be expressed as a percentage of the initial pressure value or another reference measurement. For example, if the pressure of a fluid decreases by 20% as it moves through a system, you might say that the pressure drop is 20%.
Which unit to use depends on the context and conventions of your specific field or industry. In general, it is important to be clear and consistent in the use of units and how information is presented.
The acronym for “Maximum absorbed current” is often “Imax” or “I_max”, where “I” stands for current intensity, a term used in electrical engineering to denote electric current. Therefore, “Imax” refers to the maximum current that a device or system can absorb during its operation.
For example, if an electric motor has an Imax of 10 A (amps), this means it can draw up to 10 amps of electric current during its operation. This value is important for designing and sizing electrical circuits, choosing protective devices like fuses or circuit breakers, and managing energy consumption.
As with electrical absorption Wmax, it’s important to note that Imax is a peak value, indicating the maximum possible current, but not necessarily the typical or average current during normal operation. The actual current can vary based on a number of factors, including operating conditions, load on the motor, and others.
The term “filtering capacity” refers to the ability of a filter to remove particles of a certain size from the fluid it is filtering. This value is often expressed in micrometers (µm), which is a unit of length in the metric system equivalent to one millionth of a meter.
For example, a filter with a filtering capacity of 5 µm is designed to remove particles that are equal to or larger than 5 µm in size. This does not mean that the filter will remove all particles of this size or larger, but indicates the point at which the filter is designed to have a specific filtering efficiency.
The filtering capacity of a filter can be an important parameter depending on the application. For instance, in applications such as water treatment, air filtration, or hydraulic systems, it might be necessary to remove particles of a certain size to protect equipment, improve the quality of water or air, or for other reasons.
Electrical absorption Wmax refers to the maximum amount of electrical power that a device or system can consume during its operation. It is expressed in watts (W), which is the unit of power in the International System of Units (SI).
For example, if an electric motor has an electrical absorption Wmax of 1000 W, this means that the motor can consume up to 1000 watts of electrical energy during its operation. This value can be important for the design and sizing of electrical circuits, the choice of protective devices like fuses or circuit breakers, and the management of energy consumption.
It’s important to note that the electrical absorption Wmax is a peak value, which indicates the maximum possible energy consumption, but not necessarily the typical or average energy consumption during normal operation. The actual energy consumption can vary depending on a number of factors, including operating conditions, load on the motor, and others.
In hydraulics, Qn is an acronym that denotes the nominal flow rate of a fluid. It is a reference value used to calculate and classify the performance of flow control devices such as valves.
For instance, in the case of water meters, Qn indicates the water flow rate that the meter is designed to measure under normal operating conditions, generally expressed in cubic meters per hour (m³/h).
It is important to note that normal operating conditions can vary depending on the type of device and application. For example, for a water meter, normal conditions might include a certain water pressure and a certain temperature.
Qn is just one of several parameters used to classify and describe the performance of flow control devices. Other common parameters include Qmin, which indicates the minimum flow that the device can accurately measure, and Qmax, which indicates the maximum flow that the device can handle without damage or operating inefficiently.
A polyphosphate doser volumetrically releases preservatives into the water before the heating phase to complex calcium bicarbonate molecules, preventing their precipitation and thereby reducing limescale build-up.
Polyphosphates are food preservatives, but they are still preservatives.
If we need to observe the rule that the water supplied to us at the meter must be kept unchanged (in the case where it is intended for human consumption), we risk heavy penalties, so it’s better to avoid this.
However, if the water is intended for technical purposes, we are not incurring any health sanctions.
For the technical water line (toilet, dishwasher, washing machine…) you are not at risk of health sanctions, but you should be aware of possible corrosion risks since the water is rich in Sodium.
For the water line intended for human consumption, if it is served by the softener, you run the risk of health sanctions since the treated water can no longer be considered suitable for human consumption because its original mineral composition has been changed. This can lead to the health risks previously described for users.
The treatment with the ExtraH2O device does not change the mineral composition of the water being treated.
Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, and Total Dissolved Solids continue to be present in the treated water in the same quantity as they were originally.
This property allows the nutrients present in the water intended for human consumption to reach our bodies in their original concentration, performing their nutritional and health role with preventative functions for various diseases, including cardiovascular ones.
A reverse osmosis system produces demineralized water.
It is usually placed downstream of the faucet, which is a condition to avoid sanctions as it does not interfere with the plumbing system between the meter (point of entry) and the faucet (point of use).
Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, and Total Dissolved Solids will be completely removed from your water, depriving it of essential mineral and nutritional elements for your health.
The water now coming out of your reverse osmosis system is suitable for technical use (iron, batteries) but not for food use.