Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) is one of the most abundant carbonates in sedimentary rocks across the Earth’s surface. CaCO3 occurs in nature in 6 different forms: three anhydrous crystalline polymorphs.
Calcite, Aragonite, and Vaterite, two hydrated phases and some anhydrous or hydrated amorphous forms. The three polymorphic forms of the crystal show well-differentiated structures
- Calcite (trigonal lattice)
- Aragonite (orthorhombic lattice)
- Vaterite (hexagonal lattice)
as such, the three phases have different diffraction spectra and are therefore easily identifiable with specific investigation methods.
The identification of the different phases of Calcium Carbonate in sanitary water was carried out both by X-ray diffraction analysis (diffractometer) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR).
Both analyses were conducted on the fixed residue obtained with a specific procedure so as not to affect the analysis itself. The spectra that identify the various forms and crystals of CaCO3 respond with different diffraction angles and therefore provide easily identifiable diagrams (as if each phase had its own fingerprint).
The results obtained from the different samples were compared with the spectra of the pure phases: Calcite – Aragonite – Vaterite.
This comparison was made for both untreated water and water treated with the ExtraH2O device. The analyses were carried out under different conditions: water supply temperature at time zero; temperature 60°C after 36 hours; temperature 80°C at time zero.